نارين يا نارنج قلعه در ميبد و كهن ترين بناي خشتي جهان.
Narin or Narenj castle in Meibod and oldest adobe building in the world.
Topic 21: Ownership and traditional rights
«Lampton» writes: "Ownership is different in Yazd than the other cities; Why that the land ownership is separate from water ownership. There are sub-ownerships in many of the villages; But most of these sub-ownerships belong to some absent owners who are resident in Yazd. The owners of «Deh Abad», a village near «Ardakan» and «Meibod», are some sub-owners. (2) Although «Lampton» calls owners in «Meibod» are sub-owners, there has never been a kind of aristocracy in «Meibod»; But, any how, it seems that major ownerships existed in «Meibod»; Why that there are traces seen of such ownership in farms that exist around «Meibod».
According to the testament of «Robe Rashidi», the majority of kanats in «Meibod» belong to «Khaje Rashidoddin Fazlollah Hamadani», the richest landlords of the 8th century. In local history book, there is the name of many in «Meibod» who owned many lands and real estates. (3) There are many particular names in nomination of farms or large pieces of land and garden in «Meibod» which indicate large scale ownership. In the famine of the late periods of «Qajar era», in particular, the period between the two world wars, there appeared opportunities for some to use the absolute need of people to buy their land for a low price and like many sub-owners gain more in ownership of land and water. ....
Topic 22: Public traditional medicine
Traditional medicine is a kind of medicine that has been current and put into practice in «Middle East». As «Ferdowsi» says: "the root of the science returns back to the ancient times." He believes in his «Shahnameh» that "according to some Iranian legends, «Jamshid» the king, was the first physician who thought the science to people." There is a distinction between the traditional and the public medicine and we should not take the two as the same. This is true that both roots come out from practical experience along centuries, but the traditional medicine is a part of experience filtered by scientists and defined by documents; Where as the public medicine is just a collection of people`s assumption and partially is mixed and colored with illogical superstitions.
According to the traditional medicine, the man is composed of four different physical constituents that a physician who is aware of them should prescribe the suitable drug in case any disorder. The body of man and animals is composed of four elements of fire, weather, water and the soil. Each of the four elements have its own property and attributes. Each of the four that dominate the other three would appear in the man`s taste and behavior. One who oriented to fire, he is considered to have a warm and dry nature and one whose nature is oriented to the weather, he is considered to have warm and wet nature and so on. The four natures are in contradiction to each other. They are enemies to each other and each one can not tolerate the others.
There is a belief that there are secretions in the human body that they are also four. The four secretions of sputum because of the physiologic nature, each one creates a set of particular treatment, behavior and reflection which we call «mezaj» or nature. The four mezajs are also categorized in four different groups: the bloody nature, the bilious nature, the black bile or melancholic nature and the lymph or phlegm nature. ....
Topic 23: Measurement units, astronomy and assessment of calendar
The measurement of time would take place for economic, spiritual and obeying. Before the invention of the instruments, the measurement of time was by astronomy, the moon, the sun and their movement in the sky. The rise and the go down of the sun and the moon was basis for measurement. The measurement was done according to the position of stars or the moon during the night or the sun during the day. In measurement of time by stars, the scientist would consider the advance and the delay of the rise of a star in relation to other stars which would be considered as the beginning or a particular time interval. But concerning the sun the time division was according to the rise or set down.
For example, in the irrigation system, even today, the day and night is divided as two «taq» which starts one from the rise to the set and the other from the sunset to the next sunrise. The divisions made for taq is «nimtaq» or semi-taq which lasts for 6 hours and «tasu» which is 3 hours. ....
Topic 24: School and schooling
Before the establishment of modern schools, schooling was exclusively through old fashioned primary traditional schools. The teacher was called «molla». The mollas were mostly women. The classes were bi-sexual. Boys and girls both would participate in a class room. They were together. The principle subject of a «maktab» or traditional school was «Holly Quran». In some maktabs, poetry books of «Saadi» and «Hafiz» (4) were also taught. The «Quran» recitation was taught through pronunciation of letters or scansion depending on the type of vowels used and their pronunciation.
Punishment and doing a hard job were quite common. Teachers would charge the students to do a lot of homework as a task. The mollas would consider themeselves in a position to have the right to punish the students in any kind. ....پاورقي:
(1) محمود رشيقي فيروز آبادي، متولد 1320 در فيروز آباد، ساكن تهران و از متخصصين مبرز چشم پزشكي است. اجداد پدري و مادري ايشان از مجتهدين طراز اول ميبد در قرن 13 و 14 هجري بوده اند. دكتر رشيقي، مصدر امور خير در چند شهر ايران و مخصوصاً در زادگاه خود است. تاسيس درمانگاه چشم پزشكي با كليه وسايل در بيمارستان ميبد، بناي هنرستاني با نام مرحوم پدرشان حجت الاسلام جلال الدين رشيقي، بناي پژوهش سراي مركزي و آزمايشگاه فيزيك و شيمي با كتابخانه اي به نام والده اشان و نيز بناي در دست ساخت درمانگاه فرهنگيان ميبد از جمله بنا هاي خير ايشان است.
(2) Lampton; p. 485
(3) Jame Mofidi; vol. 3, p. 95
(4) Two great poets of the 13th century of Iran